Translating Pali with The Trilinear Translation Method

Every day for at least a half hour or so I try to do some Pali translations as part of my learning. Today I was doing a fairly simple translation and figured I’d share some of the process, for those who are interested in Pali.

So I currently finished up translating the Definition for the first Noble Truth..Dukkha, or Suffering/stress/dissatisfaction, however you wish to translate it, I prefer to leave it as it is:

And what, Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of Dukkha? Birth is Dukkha, Old Age is Dukkha, Death is Dukkha. Sorrow, Lamentation,Pain,Distress,and Tribulation are Dukkha. Union with the disagreeable is Dukkha, Separation from the beloved is Dukkha. Not to obtain what one desires is Dukkha. In Brief, the Five Aggregates Subject to Clinging, are Dukkha.

Now the method. Top Layer Pali, Second Layer direct definition, bottom layer my translation:
Katamañ ca bhikkhave dukkhaṃ ariya‧saccaṃ?
And what, Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of Dukkha?
Jāti pi dukkhā, jarā pi dukkhā, maraṇam pi dukkhaṃ,
(birth) (also/and also/even so) (dukkha) (old age) (death)
Birth is Dukkha, Old Age is Dukkha, Death is Dukkha
soka‧parideva‧dukkha‧domanass’upāyāsā pi dukkhā,
Sorrow, Lamentation, Pain, Distress, and Tribulation are Dukkha
appiyehi sampayogo dukkho, piyehi vippayogo dukkho,
Union with the disagreeable is dukkha, Separation from the beloved is Dukkha
yaṃ p’icchaṃ na labhati tam pi dukkhaṃ,
(which/whatever)( wishes/desires) (no/t)(that)(get/obtain)
Not to obtain what one desires is suffering.
saṅkhittena pañc’upādānakkhandhā pi dukkhā.
(brief)(five aggregates subject to clinging)
In Brief, the Five Aggregates Subject to Clinging, are Suffering.

Direct link to full Sized Dhamma Mind Maps

For those Interested in a quick list of the mind maps I’ve completed :

37 Factors of Awakening :

Noble Eightfold Path :

5 Khandas :

Satipatthana :

Anapanasati :

Four Noble Truths :

7 Factors of Awakening :

3 Characteristics of Existence :

All The Defilements :

Dependant Origination : &

and this last one was the first one I did, based off mn22 and not-self :

New Dhamma Mind Map : The Defilements

Full sized file for zooming and printing here :

Been quite a while since I did a Dhamma Mind Map. This mind map came out of my own attempt to piece together what appears to be these disparate groupings of things which defile the luminous mind.

This was a hard one for me to work on and I’ve been doing it for some time. There is not 1 smoking gun sutta that you can point to which has all of these together, connected in this way, but they are connected as far as I can tell from my own understanding and studies, and thankfully at the recent Jhana Retreat Bhante G connected these as well, so these sources are what you see present in this mind map.

Defilements, or Kilesa, a term rarely seen in the oldest texts, is the “umbrella” term that encompasses the rest. The astute may even notice the same terms (like sensual desire and ill will) being part of almost all of the different lists, goes to show you how it’s all connected.

If you like this and would like to see close to a dozen others I’ve done before, check out this public facebook album, you can find the link to the full zoomable picture in each one.

Posted by Bhikkhu Jayasara on Friday, June 17, 2016