Qualities of a Successful Meditator

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Dhamma to Inspire” : The Buddha’s Words for Monastics : Vol III

16 (6) The Unmistaken

“Bhikkhus, possessing three qualities, a bhikkhu is practicing the unmistaken way and has laid the groundwork for the destruction of the taints. 352 What three?

Here, a bhikkhu guards the doors of the sense faculties, observes moderation in eating, and is intent on wakefulness. 353 (1) “And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu guard the doors of the sense faculties? Here, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu does not grasp its marks and features. Since, if he left the eye faculty unrestrained, bad unwholesome states of longing and dejection might invade him, he practices restraint over it; he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty.

Having heard a sound with the ear …Having smelled an odor with the nose …Having tasted a taste with the tongue …Having felt a tactile object with the body …Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, a bhikkhu does not grasp its marks and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unrestrained, bad unwholesome states of longing and dejection might invade him, he practices restraint over it; he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty. It is in this way that a bhikkhu guards the doors of the sense faculties. [114]

(2) “And how does a bhikkhu observe moderation in eating? Here, reflecting carefully, a bhikkhu consumes food neither for amusement nor for intoxication nor for the sake of physical beauty and attractiveness, but only for the support and maintenance of this body, for avoiding harm, and for assisting the spiritual life, considering: ‘Thus I shall terminate the old feeling and not arouse a new feeling, and I shall be healthy and blameless and dwell at ease.’It is in this way that a bhikkhu observes moderation in eating.

(3) “And how is a bhikkhu intent on wakefulness? Here, during the day, while walking back and forth and sitting, a bhikkhu purifies his mind of obstructive qualities. In the first watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, he purifies his mind of obstructive qualities. In the middle watch of the night he lies down on the right side in the lion’s posture, with one foot overlapping the other, mindful and clearly comprehending, after noting in his mind the idea of rising. After rising, in the last watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, he purifies his mind of obstructive qualities. It is in this way that a bhikkhu is intent on wakefulness. “A bhikkhu who possesses these three qualities is practicing the unmistaken way and has laid the groundwork for the destruction of the taints.”

 




 

“So too, possessing three factors, a bhikkhu is incapable of achieving a wholesome state not yet attained or of increasing a wholesome state already attained. What three? Here, a bhikkhu does not diligently apply himself to an object of concentration in the morning, in the middle of the day, or in the evening. Possessing these three factors, a bhikkhu is incapable of achieving a wholesome state not yet attained or of increasing a wholesome state already attained. [116]

“Bhikkhus, possessing three factors, a shopkeeper is capable of acquiring wealth not yet acquired and of increasing wealth already acquired. What three? Here, a shopkeeper diligently applies himself to his work in the morning, in the middle of the day, and in the evening. Possessing these three factors, a shopkeeper is capable of acquiring wealth not yet acquired and of increasing wealth already acquired. “So too, possessing three factors, a bhikkhu is capable of achieving a wholesome state not yet attained and of increasing a wholesome state already attained. What three? Here, a bhikkhu diligently applies himself to an object of concentration in the morning, in the middle of the day, and in the evening. Possessing these three factors, a bhikkhu is capable of achieving a wholesome state not yet attained and of increasing a wholesome state already attained.”

 




 

(1) “And what, bhikkhus, is oneself as one’s authority? Here, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: ‘I did not go forth from the household life into homelessness for the sake of a robe, almsfood, or lodging, or for the sake of becoming this or that, 399 but rather [with the thought]: “I am immersed in birth, old age, and death; in sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish. I am immersed in suffering, afflicted by suffering. Perhaps an ending of this entire mass of suffering can be discerned.”[148] As one who has gone forth from the household life into homelessness, it would not be proper for me to seek out sensual pleasures similar to or worse than those that I have discarded.’He then reflects thus: ‘Energy will be aroused in me without slackening; mindfulness will be established without confusion; my body will be tranquil without disturbance; my mind will be concentrated and one-pointed.’Having taken himself as his authority, he abandons the unwholesome and develops the wholesome; he abandons what is blameworthy and develops what is blameless; he maintains himself in purity. This is called oneself as one’s authority.

 




 

As one who has gone forth from the household life into homelessness, I might think sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, or thoughts of harming. But the abode of the world is vast. In the vast abode of the world there are ascetics and brahmins with psychic potency and the divine eye who know the minds of others. They see things from a distance but they are not themselves seen even when they’re close; they know the minds [of others] with their own mind. They would know me thus: “Look at this clansman: though he has gone forth from the household life into homelessness out of faith, he is tarnished by bad unwholesome states.”There are deities, too, with psychic potency and the divine eye who know the minds of others. They see even from a distance but are not seen themselves even when close; they too know the minds [of others] with their own mind. They too would know me thus: “Look at this clansman: though he has gone forth from the household life into homelessness out of faith, he is tarnished by bad unwholesome states.”’He then reflects thus: ‘Energy will be aroused in me [149] without slackening; mindfulness will be established without confusion; my body will be tranquil without disturbance; my mind will be concentrated and one-pointed.’

 




 

AN 3.40 Authorities :
“These, bhikkhus, are the three authorities.”For one performing an evil deed there is no place in the world called “hidden.”The self within you knows, O person, whether it is true or false. 400 Indeed, sir, you the witness despise your good self; you conceal the evil self existing within yourself. 401 [150] The devas and Tathāgatas see the fool acting unrighteously in the world. Therefore one should fare mindfully, taking oneself as authority; alert and meditative, taking the world as authority; and fare in accordance with the Dhamma, taking the Dhamma as authority. Truly exerting himself, a sage does not decline. Having vanquished Māra and overcome the end-maker, the striver has finished with birth. Such a sage, wise, a world-knower, identifies with nothing at all. 402

400 Attā te purisa jānāti saccaṃ vā yadi vā musā. Mp: “You yourself know, of whatever you do, whether it is of this or that nature. For this reason, it should be understood that, for one who does an evil deed, there is no place in the world that can be called ‘hidden.’”

 




 

“Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher virtuous behavior; we will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher mind; we will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher wisdom.’ It is in this way that you should train yourselves.”

 




 

82 (2) The Donkey518

“Bhikkhus, suppose a donkey was following right behind a herd of cattle, [thinking]: ‘I’m a cow too, I’m a cow too.’519 (1) But his appearance would not be like that of the cows, (2) his braying would not be like that of the cows, and (3) his footprint would not be like that of the cows. Yet he follows right behind a herd of cattle, [thinking]: ‘I’m a cow too, I’m a cow too.’“So too, a bhikkhu might be following right behind the Saṅgha of bhikkhus, [thinking]: ‘I’m a bhikkhu too, I’m a bhikkhu too.’(1) But his desire to undertake the training in the higher virtuous behavior is not like that of the other bhikkhus; (2) his desire to undertake the training in the higher mind is not like that of the other bhikkhus; (3) his desire to undertake the training in the higher wisdom is not like that of the other bhikkhus. Yet he follows right behind the Saṅgha of bhikkhus, [thinking]: ‘I’m a bhikkhu too, I’m a bhikkhu too.’“Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher virtuous behavior; we will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher mind; we will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher wisdom.’It is in this way that you should train yourselves.”

 




 

“Bhante, every half-month more than a hundred and fifty training rules come up for recitation. I cannot train in them.”“Can you train in the three trainings, bhikkhu: the training in the higher virtuous behavior, the training in the higher mind, and the training in the higher wisdom?”“I can, Bhante.”“Therefore, bhikkhu, train in the three trainings: the training in the higher virtuous behavior, the training in the higher mind, and the training in the higher wisdom. As you train in them, you will abandon lust, hatred, and delusion. With the abandoning of lust, hatred, and delusion, you will do nothing unwholesome or resort to anything bad.”

 




 

(1) “And what, bhikkhus , is the assembly of the foremost? Here, in this kind of assembly the elder bhikkhus do not become luxurious and lax, but discard backsliding and take the lead in solitude; they arouse energy for the attainment of the as-yet-unattained, for the achievement of the as-yet-unachieved, for the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. [Those in] the next generation follow their example. They too do not become luxurious and lax, but discard backsliding and take the lead in solitude; they too arouse energy for the attainment of the as-yet-unattained, for the achievement of the as-yet-unachieved, for the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is called the assembly of the foremost.

 




 

“So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is devoted to the higher mind, (1) there are in him gross defilements: bodily, verbal, and mental misconduct. An earnest, capable bhikkhu abandons, dispels, terminates, and obliterates them. When this has been done, (2) there remain in him middling defilements: sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of harming. An earnest, capable bhikkhu abandons, dispels, terminates, and obliterates them. When this has been done, (3) there remain in him subtle defilements: thoughts about his relations, 556 thoughts about his country, and thoughts about his reputation. 557 An earnest, capable bhikkhu abandons, dispels, terminates, and obliterates them. When this has been done, then there remain thoughts connected with the Dhamma. 558

That concentration is not peaceful and sublime, not gained by full tranquilization, 559 not attained to unification, but is reined in and checked by forcefully suppressing [the defilements]. 560 “But, bhikkhus, there comes a time when his mind becomes internally steady, composed, unified, and concentrated. That concentration is peaceful and sublime, gained by full tranquilization, and attained to unification; it is not reined in and checked by forcefully suppressing [the defilements]. 561 Then, there being a suitable basis, he is capable of realizing any state realizable by direct knowledge toward which he might incline his

 




“So too, when a bhikkhu is devoted to the higher mind, from time to time he should give attention to three marks. From time to time he should give attention to the mark of concentration, from time to time to the mark of exertion, and from time to time to the mark of equanimity. “If a bhikkhu devoted to the higher mind attends exclusively to the mark of concentration, [258] it is possible that his mind will veer toward laziness. If he attends exclusively to the mark of exertion, it is possible that his mind will veer toward restlessness. If he attends exclusively to the mark of equanimity, it is possible that his mind will not be properly concentrated for the destruction of the taints. But when from time to time he gives attention to the mark of concentration, from time to time to the mark of exertion, and from time to time to the mark of equanimity, his mind becomes malleable, wieldy, and luminous, not brittle but properly concentrated for the destruction of the taints. Then, there being a suitable basis, he is capable of realizing any state realizable by direct knowledge toward which he might incline his mind.

 




 

AN 3.107 (5) Wailing

“Bhikkhus, (1) in the Noble One’s discipline, singing is wailing. (2) In the Noble One’s discipline, dancing is madness. (3) In the Noble One’s discipline, to laugh excessively, displaying one’s teeth, is childishness. Therefore, bhikkhus, in regard to singing and dancing [let there be] the demolition of the bridge. When you smile rejoicing in the Dhamma, you may simply show a smile.




 

(3) “And what is mental purity? 583 Here, when there is sensual desire in him, a bhikkhu understands: ‘There is sensual desire in me’; or when there is no sensual desire in him, he understands: ‘There is no sensual desire in me’; and he also understands how unarisen sensual desire arises, how arisen sensual desire is abandoned, and how abandoned sensual desire does not arise again in the future.

 




 

“Here, a bhikkhu dwells in dependence on a certain village or town. A householder or a householder’s son approaches him and invites him for the next day’s meal. If he wishes, the bhikkhu accepts. When the night has passed, in the morning the bhikkhu dresses, takes his bowl and robe, and goes to the residence of that householder or householder’s son. He sits down in the seat that has been prepared and that householder or householder’s son, with his own hand, serves and satisfies him with various kinds of delicious food. (1) It does not occur to him: ‘How good, indeed, that this householder [275] or householder’s son, with his own hand, serves and satisfies me with various kinds of delicious food!’(2) It also does not occur to him: ‘Oh, in the future too may this householder or householder’s son, with his own hand, serve and satisfy me with a similar variety of delicious food!’(3) He uses that food without being tied to it, infatuated with it, and blindly absorbed in it, but seeing the danger in it and understanding the escape from it. He thinks thoughts of renunciation in relation to it; he thinks thoughts of good will; he thinks thoughts of non-harming. What is given to such a bhikkhu, I say, is of great fruit.

 




 

“Bhikkhus, wherever bhikkhus take to arguing and quarreling and fall into a dispute, stabbing each other with piercing words, I am uneasy even about directing my attention there, let alone about going there. I conclude about them: ‘Surely , those venerable ones have abandoned three things and cultivated three [other] things.’“What are the three things they have abandoned ? Thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of good will, and thoughts of non-harming. These are the three things they have abandoned.

 




 

IV. A WARRIOR 133 (1) A Warrior

“Bhikkhus, possessing three factors, a warrior is worthy of a king, an accessory of a king, and reckoned a factor of kingship. What three? Here, a warrior is a long-distance shooter, a sharp-shooter, and one who splits a great body. Possessing these three factors, a warrior is worthy of a king, an accessory of a king, and reckoned a factor of kingship. So too, possessing three factors, a bhikkhu is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world. What three? Here, a bhikkhu is a long-distance shooter, a sharp-shooter, and one who splits a great body. (1) “And how is a bhikkhu a long-distance shooter? Here, any kind of form whatsoever—whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near—a bhikkhu sees all form as it really is with correct wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’Any kind of feeling whatsoever …[285] …Any kind of perception whatsoever …Any kind of volitional activities whatsoever …Any kind of consciousness whatsoever—whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near—a bhikkhu sees all consciousness as it really is with correct wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’It is in this way that a bhikkhu is a long-distance shooter. (2) “And how is a bhikkhu a sharp-shooter? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: ‘This is suffering.’He understands as it really is: ‘This is the origin of suffering.’He understands as it really is: ‘This is the cessation of suffering.’He understands as it really is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’It is in this way that a bhikkhu is a sharp-shooter. (3) “And how is a bhikkhu one who splits a great body? Here, a bhikkhu splits the great mass of ignorance. It is in this way that a bhikkhu is one who splits a great body. “Possessing these three qualities, a bhikkhu is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world.”

 




 

135 (3) A Friend “Bhikkhus, one should associate with a friend who possesses three factors. What three? (1) Here, a bhikkhu gives what is hard to give. (2) He does what is hard to do. (3) He patiently endures what is hard to endure. One should associate with a friend who possesses these three factors.”

 




 

11 (1) Walking639

(1) “Bhikkhus, if a sensual thought, a thought of ill will, or a thought of harming arises in a bhikkhu while walking, and he tolerates it, does not abandon it, dispel it, terminate it, and obliterate it, then that bhikkhu is said to be devoid of ardor and moral dread; he is constantly and continuously lazy and lacking in energy while walking. (2) “If a sensual thought …arises in a bhikkhu while standing …(3) If a sensual thought …arises in a bhikkhu while sitting …(4) If a sensual thought, a thought of ill will, or a thought of harming arises in a bhikkhu while wakefully lying down, and he tolerates it, does not abandon it, dispel it, terminate it, and obliterate it, then that bhikkhu is said to be devoid of ardor and moral dread; he is constantly and continuously lazy and lacking in energy while wakefully lying down. (1) “But, bhikkhus, if a sensual thought, a thought of ill will, or a thought of harming arises in a bhikkhu while walking, and he does not tolerate it but abandons it, dispels it, terminates it, and obliterates it, then that bhikkhu is said to be ardent and to dread wrongdoing; he is constantly and continuously energetic and resolute while walking.

Whether walking or standing, sitting or lying down, one who thinks bad thoughts connected with the household life has entered upon a dire path, infatuated by delusive things: such a bhikkhu cannot reach the highest enlightenment. But one who, whether walking, standing, sitting, or lying down, has calmed his thoughts and delights in the stilling of thought: a bhikkhu such as this can reach the highest enlightenment.

 

Solidity and Fluidity

I was asked a question via my old tumblr, and I figured it may be of benefit here:
Dear Jayantha, To what extent do you use routine in your practice (in terms of using certain types of meditation and contemplations at set times) and to what extent is your practice free flowing? Your brother in the Dhamma, Simon P.s. I humbly thank you for all that you share online. Your videos and dhamma have been immeasurably valuable on my journey on the path.
——————————————————————————-
I would say that I have a certain framework I use, but I don’t hold on to it too rigidly.
Routine and structure are a large part in how I keep my life together. I thought that when I became a monk I wouldn’t need to make a daily schedule, but then I realized I wasn’t getting in all my study and practice without one, so I’ve been on a schedule ever since. Days when I’m on my schedule I get in all my meditation and study, days that I fall off schedule due to outside events, I find it hard to get things done.
So that being said, my meditation usually begins with walking meditation and then sitting meditation. Usually I split it 30-30 although I feel the focus of my practice lately has been to develop my concentration so I’m doing a little more sitting then walking. I also get in some metta and mindfulness of death in my early morning and final meditations, so for those periods I usually walk for 10 minutes, metta and mod for 10 minutes, then sit for at least 30.
Throughout the day I also try to maintain basic sati and practice the four foundations of mindfulness in all my actions, to varying degrees of success :).
So in the end I would say that a balance of rigidity and fluidity is required. It is important for the development of strong habits that you are consistent, but it is important for growth that you remain open and flexible.

“Dhamma to Inspire” : The Buddha’s Words for Monastics : Vol II

“Therefore, monks, I will designate a training-rule for the monks on account of ten reasons: for the excellence of the Saṅgha, for the comfort of the Saṅgha, for the restraint of shameless people, for the comfortable abiding of well-behaved monks, for restraining existent taints51, for preventing taints in the future, for the faith of the faithless, for the increase of the faithful, for the stability of the true Dhamma, and for assisting the Vinaya.”



46 (6) The Restraint of the Pātimokkha

Then a certain bhikkhu approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him: “Venerable sir, it would be good if the Blessed One would teach me the Dhamma in brief, so that, having heard the Dhamma from the Blessed One, I might dwell alone, withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and resolute.”“In that case, bhikkhu, purify the very beginning of wholesome states. And what is the beginning of wholesome states? Here, bhikkhu, dwell restrained by the restraint of the Pātimokkha, accomplished in good conduct and proper resort, seeing danger in the slightest faults. Having undertaken the training rules, train in them. When, bhikkhu, you dwell restrained by the restraint of the Pātimokkha …seeing danger in the slightest faults, then, based upon virtue, established upon virtue, you should develop the four establishments of mindfulness. “What four? Here, bhikkhu, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body …feelings in feelings …mind in mind …phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.   “When, bhikkhu, based upon virtue, established upon virtue, you develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way, then, whether night or day comes, you may expect only growth in wholesome states, not decline.”Then that bhikkhu, having delighted and rejoiced in the Blessed One’s statement, rose from his seat.…[188] And that bhikkhu became one of the arahants.



“In that case, bhikkhu , purify the very beginning of wholesome states. And what is the beginning of wholesome states? Here, bhikkhu, having abandoned bodily misconduct, you should develop good bodily conduct. Having abandoned verbal misconduct, you should develop good verbal conduct. Having abandoned mental misconduct, you should develop good mental conduct. When, bhikkhu, having abandoned bodily misconduct … you have developed good mental conduct, then, based upon virtue, established upon virtue, you should develop the four establishments of mindfulness.



9 (9) Disputatious Talk

“Bhikkhus, do not engage in disputatious talk, 378 saying: ‘You don’t understand this Dhamma and Discipline. I understand this Dhamma and Discipline. What, you understand this Dhamma and Discipline! You’re practising wrongly, I’m practising rightly. What should have been said before you said after; what should have been said after you said before. I’m consistent, you’re inconsistent. What you took so long to think out has been overturned. Your thesis has been refuted. Go off to rescue your thesis, for you’re defeated, or disentangle yourself if you can.’For what reason? Because, bhikkhus, this talk is unbeneficial, irrelevant to the fundamentals of the holy life, and does not lead to revulsion, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna.



“Bhikkhus, do not engage in the various kinds of pointless talk, 379 that is, talk about kings, thieves, and ministers of state; talk about armies, dangers, and wars; talk about food, drink, garments, and beds; talk about garlands and scents; talk about relations, vehicles, villages, towns, cities , and countries; talk about women and talk about heroes; [420] street talk and talk by the well; talk about those departed in days gone by; rambling chitchat ; speculation about the world and about the sea; talk about becoming this or that. For what reason? Because, bhikkhus, this talk is unbeneficial, irrelevant to the fundamentals of the holy life, and does not lead to revulsion, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna.



“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May the memories and intentions connected with the household life be abandoned by me,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.



XII. SEARCHES 111 (1)–120 (10) Searches, Etc.

“Bhikkhus, there are these three searches. What three? The search for sensual pleasures, the search for existence, the search for a holy life….”



Anguttara. Book o 2

15 (5) “Bhikkhus, if, in regard to a particular disciplinary issue, 231 the bhikkhu who has committed an offense and the bhikkhu who reproves him do not each thoroughly reflect upon themselves, it can be expected that this disciplinary issue [54] will lead to acrimony and animosity for a long time and the bhikkhus will not dwell at ease. But if the bhikkhu who has committed an offense and the bhikkhu who reproves him each thoroughly reflect upon themselves, it can be expected that this disciplinary issue will not lead to acrimony and animosity for a long time and the bhikkhus will dwell at ease.



127 (4) Bhāradvāja

“Great king, this was said by the Blessed One who knows and sees, the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One: ‘Come, bhikkhus, towards women old enough to be your mother set up the idea that they are your mother; 119 [111] towards those of an age to be your sisters set up the idea that they are your sisters; towards those young enough to be your daughters set up the idea that they are your daughters.’ This is a cause and reason, great king, why these young bhikkhus … lead the complete and pure holy life all their lives and maintain it continuously.”

“The mind is wanton, Master Bhāradvāja. Sometimes states of lust arise even towards women old enough to be one’s mother; sometimes they arise towards women of an age to be one’s sister; sometimes they arise towards women young enough to be one’s daughter. Is there any other cause and reason why these young bhikkhus



“Great king, this was said by the Blessed One who knows and sees, the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One: ‘Come, bhikkhus, review this very body upwards from the soles of the feet, downwards from the tips of the hairs, enclosed in skin, as full of many kinds of impurities: 120 “There are in this body head-hairs, body-hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, contents of the stomach, excrement, bile, phlegm, pus , blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, snot, fluid of the joints, urine .”’ This too, great king, is a cause and reason why these young bhikkhus … lead the complete and pure holy life all their lives and maintain it continuously.”

Sometimes, though one thinks, ‘I will attend to the body as foul,’one beholds it as beautiful. [112] Is there any other cause and reason why these young bhikkhus …lead the complete and pure holy life all their lives and maintain it continuously?”“Great king, this was said by the Blessed One who knows and sees, the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One: ‘Come, bhikkhus, dwell guarding the doors of the sense faculties. Having seen a form with the eye, do not grasp its signs and features. Since, if you leave the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and displeasure might invade you, practise the way of its restraint, guard the eye faculty, undertake the restraint of the eye faculty. Having heard a sound with the ear… Having smelt an odour with the nose … Having savoured a taste with the tongue … Having felt a tactile object with the body … Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, do not grasp its signs and features. Since, if you leave the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and displeasure might invade you, practise the way of its restraint, guard the mind faculty, undertake the restraint of the mind faculty.’This too, great king, is a cause and reason why these young bhikkhus …lead the complete and pure holy life all their lives and maintain it continuously.”



245 (8) The Kiṃsuka Tree

One bhikkhu approached another and asked him: “In what way, friend, is a bhikkhu’s vision well purified?”202 “When, friend, a bhikkhu understands as they really are the origin and the passing away of the six bases for contact, [192] in this way his vision is well purified.”203 Then the first bhikkhu, dissatisfied with the other’s answer, approached another bhikkhu and asked him: “In what way, friend, is a bhikkhu’s vision well purified?”“When, friend, a bhikkhu understands as they really are the origin and the passing away of the five aggregates subject to clinging, in this way his vision is well purified.”Again, the first bhikkhu, dissatisfied with the other’s answer, approached still another bhikkhu and asked him: “In what way, friend, is a bhikkhu’s vision well purified?”“When, friend, a bhikkhu understands as they really are the origin and the passing away of the four great elements, in this way his vision is well purified.”Again, the first bhikkhu, dissatisfied with the other’s answer, approached still another bhikkhu and asked him: “In what way, friend, is a bhikkhu’s vision well purified?”“When, friend, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: ‘Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation,’in this way his vision is well purified.”



XX. Blissful Is Detachment

Blissful is detachment for one who is content,
For one who has learned Dhamma and who sees.

Blissful is freedom from anger in the world,
Restraint toward living creatures.

Blissful is passionlessness in the world,
The overcoming of sensual desires;

But abolishing the conceit “I am”
That is truly the supreme bliss.
All subjection to another is painful;
Full mastery is bliss.
Partners share in affliction,
Bonds are difficult to overcome.



““Above, across, and below, Delight is no more found in them. They boldly sound their lion’s roar: ‘The enlightened are supreme in the world.’””



20 (10) 237 “Bhikkhus, there are these two things that lead to the decline and disappearance of the good Dhamma. What two? [59] Badly set down words and phrases and badly interpreted meaning. 238 When the words and phrases are badly set down, the meaning is badly interpreted. These are the two things that lead to the decline and disappearance of the good Dhamma. “Bhikkhus, there are these two things that lead to the continuation, non-decline, and non-disappearance of the good Dhamma. What two? Well-set down words and phrases and well-interpreted meaning. 239 When the words and phrases are well set down, the meaning is well interpreted. These are the two things that lead to the continuation, non-decline, and non-disappearance of the good Dhamma.”



“And what is the assembly of the foremost? Here, in this kind of assembly the elder bhikkhus are not luxurious and lax but discard backsliding and take the lead in solitude; they arouse energy for the attainment of the as-yet-unattained, for the achievement of the as-yet-unachieved, for the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. [Those in] the next generation follow their example. They too do not become luxurious and lax but discard backsliding and take the lead in solitude; they too arouse energy for the attainment of the as-yet-unattained, for the achievement of the as-yet-unachieved, for the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is called the assembly of the foremost.



“So too, bhikkhus, there are these three [places] that a bhikkhu should remember all his life. What three? (1) The first is the place where he shaved off his hair and beard, put on ochre robes, and went forth from the household life into homelessness. (2) The second is the place where he understood as it really is: ‘This is suffering,’and ‘This is the origin of suffering,’and ‘This is the cessation of suffering,’and ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’(3) And the third is the place where, with the destruction of the taints, he realized for himself with direct knowledge, in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by wisdom, and having entered upon it, dwelled in it. 343 These are the three [places] that a bhikkhu should remember all his life.”



15 (5) Pacetana349

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Bārāṇasī in the deer park at Isipatana. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus: “Bhikkhus!”[111] “Venerable sir!”those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this: “Bhikkhus, in the past there was a king named Pacetana.

Then King Pacetana addressed a chariotmaker: ‘Friend chariotmaker, six months from now there will be a battle. Can you make me a new pair of wheels?’–‘I can, lord,’the chariotmaker replied. After six months less six days the chariotmaker had finished one wheel. King Pacetana then addressed the chariotmaker: ‘Six days from now there will be a battle. Is the new pair of wheels finished?’[The chariotmaker replied:] ‘In the past six months less six days, lord, I have finished one wheel.’–‘But, friend chariotmaker, can you finish a second wheel for me in the next six days?’–‘I can, lord,’the chariotmaker replied.

Then, over the next six days, the chariotmaker finished the second wheel. He brought the new pair of wheels to King Pacetana and said: ‘This is the new pair of wheels that I have made for you, lord.’–‘What is the difference, friend chariotmaker, between the wheel that took six months less six days to complete and the one that took six days to complete? I do not see any difference between them.’–‘There is a difference, lord. Observe the difference.’“Then the chariotmaker rolled the wheel that took six days to finish. It rolled as far as the impetus carried it, 350 and then it wobbled and fell to the ground. But the wheel that took six months [112] less six days to finish rolled as far as the impetus carried it and then stood still as if fixed on an axle. 351

“[ The king asked:] ‘Why is it, friend chariotmaker, that the wheel that took six days to finish rolled as far as the impetus carried it, and then wobbled and fell to the ground, while the wheel that took six months less six days to finish rolled as far as the impetus carried it and then stood still as if fixed on an axle?’“[ The chariotmaker replied:] ‘The wheel that took six days to finish, lord, has a rim that is crooked, faulty, and defective; spokes that are crooked, faulty, and defective; and a nave that is crooked, faulty, and defective. For this reason, it rolled as far as the impetus carried it and then it wobbled and fell to the ground. But the wheel that took six months less six days to finish has a rim without crookedness, faults, and defects; it has spokes without crookedness, faults, and defects; and it has a nave that is without crookedness, faults, and defects. For this reason, it rolled as far as the impetus carried it and then stood still as if fixed on an axle.’“It may be, bhikkhus, that you think: ‘On that occasion the chariotmaker was someone else.’But you should not think in such a way. On that occasion, I myself was the chariotmaker. Then I was skilled in crookedness, faults, and defects in wood. But now I am the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, (1) skilled in crookedness, faults, and defects of the body; (2) skilled in crookedness, faults, and defects of speech; and (3) skilled in crookedness, faults, and defects of mind.

“Any bhikkhu or bhikkhunī who has not abandoned crookedness, faults, and defects of the body, speech, and mind has fallen down from this Dhamma and discipline, just as the wheel that was finished in six days fell to the ground.

“Any bhikkhu or bhikkhunī who has abandoned crookedness, faults, and defects of the body, speech, and mind is established in this Dhamma and discipline, just as the wheel that was finished in six months less six days remained standing.

“Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will abandon crookedness, faults, and defects of the body; we will abandon crookedness, faults, and defects of speech; we will abandon crookedness, faults, and defects of the mind.’ It is in this way that you should train yourselves.”

“Dhamma to Inspire” : The Buddha’s Words for Monastics : Vol I

For the past few years  I have been working on my goal to read through all the nikayas cover to cover. As I’ve read I have been copy/pasting hundreds of lines from the nikayas into a google keep compendium of dozens of dhamma topics.

One that I created were for selections I felt would be important for inspiration and reminders on the monastic path. I read through these every once in a while to remind myself what I’m doing and why. So that is what this series will be, simply randomly selected passages from the Nikayas related to monasticism.

Let us Begin:



Just as the ocean is stable and does not overstep its tideline, in the same way my disciples do not — even for the sake of their lives — overstep the training rules I have formulated for them.
— Ud 5.5



“It is in such a way, bhikkhus , that this clansman has gone forth. Yet he is covetous, inflamed by lust for sensual pleasures, with a mind full of ill will, with intentions corrupted by hate, muddle-minded, lacking clear comprehension, unconcentrated, scatter-brained, loose in his sense faculties. Just as a brand from a funeral pyre, burning at both ends and smeared with excrement in the middle, cannot be used as timber either in the village or in the forest, in just such a way do I speak about this person : he has missed out on the enjoyments of a householder, yet he does not fulfil the goal of asceticism.



94 (2) Flowers

At Sāvatthī. “Bhikkhus, I do not dispute with the world; rather, it is the world that disputes with me. A proponent of the Dhamma does not dispute with anyone in the world.



Silent in body, silent in speech,
silent in mind, without defilement,
blessed with silence is the sage.
One is truly washed of evil.

Itivuttaka 3.67



On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Kosambī in Ghosita’s Park. Then, in the morning, the Blessed One dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Kosambī for alms. When he had walked for alms in Kosambī and had returned from the alms round, after his meal [95] he set his lodging in order himself, took his bowl and robe, and without informing his personal attendants, without taking leave of the Bhikkhu Saṅgha, he set out on tour alone, without a companion. 128

128 Spk assigns this sutta to the time of the famous quarrel at Kosambī. After he had failed in three attempts to reconcile the factious parties, the Buddha decided to set out alone. For a full account, see Vin I 337-57 and Ñāṇamoli, Life of the Buddha, pp. 109-19.

“Friend, whenever the Blessed One sets out like that he wishes to dwell alone. On such an occasion the Blessed One should not be followed by anyone.”



3 (1) With Yourselves as an Island At Sāvatthī. “Bhikkhus, dwell with yourselves as an island, with yourselves as a refuge, with no other refuge; with the Dhamma as an island, with the Dhamma as a refuge, with no other refuge. 53 When you dwell with yourselves as an island, with yourselves as a refuge, with no other refuge; with the Dhamma as an island, with the Dhamma as a refuge, with no other refuge,”



““He should speak and explain the Dhamma, He should raise high the seers’banner. Well-spoken words are the seers’banner: For the Dhamma is the banner of seers.””



““And how, Elder, is dwelling alone fulfilled in detail? Here, Elder, what lies in the past has been abandoned, what lies in the future has been relinquished, and desire and lust for present forms of individual existence has been thoroughly removed. 398 It is in such a way, Elder, that dwelling alone is fulfilled in detail.” [284]”



If one can find a worthy friend, A virtuous, steadfast companion, Then overcome all threats of danger And walk with him content and mindful. But if one finds no worthy friend, No virtuous, steadfast companion, Then as a king leaves his conquered realm, Walk like a tusker in the woods alone. Better it is to walk alone, There is no companionship with fools. Walk alone and do no evil, At ease like a tusker in the woods.
mn 128



Bhikkhus, dreadful are gain, honour, and praise, bitter, vile, obstructive to achieving the unsurpassed security from bondage.”



““Just so, Kassapa, in the past the elder bhikkhus were forest dwellers and spoke in praise of forest dwelling; they were almsfood eaters and spoke in praise of eating almsfood; they were rag-robe wearers and spoke in praise of wearing rag-robes; they were triple-robe users and spoke in praise of using the triple robe; they were of few wishes and spoke in praise of fewness of wishes; they were content and spoke in praise of contentment; they were secluded and spoke in praise of solitude; they were aloof from society and spoke in praise of aloofness from society; they were energetic and spoke in praise of arousing energy.”



Forgiveness in dhamma:

“But since you see your transgression as a transgression and make amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma, we pardon you for it. For it is growth in the Noble One’s Discipline when one sees one’s transgression as a transgression, makes amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma, and undertakes future restraint.””

“going forth as a thief of the Dhamma in such a well-expounded Dhamma and Discipline as this has results that are far more painful, far more bitter, and further, it leads to the nether world. But since you see your transgression as a transgression and make amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma, we pardon you for it. For it is growth in the Noble One’s Discipline when one sees one’s transgression as a transgression, makes amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma, and undertakes future restraint.””



the monk, nun, male lay follower, or female lay follower who keeps practicing the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma, who keeps practicing masterfully, who lives in accordance with the Dhamma: that is the person who worships, honors, respects, venerates, & pays homage to the Tathagata with the highest homage.” parinibbana



“The true Middle Way is not a comfortable highway built out of easy compromises, but a lonely, steep ascent, which requires the renunciation of craving and the ability to endure hardship and discomfort.” – Lives of the Buddha’s Disciples(not direct sutta quote)



Ochre-necks:  monks who don’t act like monks



Discipline is for the sake of restraint,
restraint for the sake of freedom from remorse,
freedom from remorse for the sake of joy,
joy for the sake of rapture,
rapture for the sake of tranquillity,
tranquillity for the sake of pleasure,
pleasure for the sake of concentration,
concentration for the sake of knowledge
and vision of things as they are,
knowledge and vision of things as they are
for the sake of disenchantment,
disenchantment for the sake of release,
release for the sake of knowledge and vision of release,
knowledge and vision of release
for the sake of total unbinding without clinging.
— Parivaara.XII.2 (BMC p.1)———————-



598 “One should resort to remote lodgings, Practise for release from the fetters. But if one does not find delight there, Guarded and mindful, dwell in the Saṅgha.



413 < 334 > 599 “Walking for alms from family to family,Faculties guarded, discreet, mindful, One should resort to remote lodgings, Freed from fear, liberated in the fearless.



414 600 “Where terrible serpents glide, Where lightning flashes and the sky thunders, In the thick darkness of the night There sits a bhikkhu devoid of terror. 415

SN 13 book of verses



However young,
The seeker who sets out upon the way
Shines bright over the world
But day and night

The man who is awake
Shines in the radiance of the spirit
Meditate.
Live purely.
Be quiet.
Do your work, with mastery
Like the moon,
Come out from behind the clouds!
Shine…



If gold and silver are allowable for anyone, the five cords of sensual pleasure are allowable for him. If the five cords of sensual pleasure are allowable for anyone, you can definitely consider him to be one who does not have the character of an ascetic or of a follower of the Sakyan son.



“Few are those among humankind Who go beyond to the far shore. The rest of the people merely run Up and down along the bank.   “When the Dhamma is rightly expounded Those who practise in accord with the Dhamma Are the people who will go beyond The realm of Death so hard to cross.   “Having left behind the dark qualities, The wise man should develop the bright ones. Having come from home into homelessness, Where it is hard to take delight—  “There in seclusion he should seek delight, Having left behind sensual pleasures. Owning nothing, the wise man Should cleanse himself of mental defilements.   “Those whose minds are well developed In the factors of enlightenment, Who through nonclinging find delight In the relinquishment of grasping: Those luminous ones with taints destroyed Are fully quenched in the world.”[25]



“And what, bhikkhus, is asceticism? It is this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view … right concentration. This is called asceticism.

“And what, bhikkhus, is the goal of asceticism? The destruction of lust, the destruction of hatred, the destruction of delusion. This is called the goal of asceticism.”

“And what, bhikkhus, are the fruits of asceticism? The fruit of stream-entry, the fruit of once-returning, the fruit of nonreturning, the fruit of arahantship. These are called the fruits of asceticism.”



“And what, bhikkhus, is the goal of the holy life? The destruction of lust, the destruction of hatred, the destruction of delusion. This is called the goal of the holy life.”

‘It is, friends, for the fading away of lust that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One.’

‘It is, friends , for the abandoning of the fetters … for the uprooting of the underlying tendencies … for the full understanding of the course 31 … for the destruction of the taints … for the realization of the fruit of true knowledge and liberation … for the sake of knowledge and vision … [29] … for the sake of final Nibbāna without clinging that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One.’



49 (1) Good Friend At Sāvatthı̄. “Bhikkhus, this is the forerunner and precursor of the rising of the sun, that is, the dawn. So too, bhikkhus, [30] for a bhikkhu this is the forerunner and precursor for the arising of the Noble Eightfold Path, that is, good friendship. 32 When a bhikkhu has a good friend, it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate this Noble Eightfold Path.

At Sāvatthı̄. “Bhikkhus, one thing is very helpful for the arising of the Noble Eightfold Path. What one thing? Good friendship. [33] When a bhikkhu has a good friend, it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate the Noble Eightfold Path.

“Bhikkhus, I do not see even one other thing by means of which the unarisen Noble Eightfold Path arises and the arisen Noble Eightfold Path goes to fulfilment by development so effectively as by this: good friendship. When a bhikkhu has a good friend, it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate the Noble Eightfold Path.

12 (2) The Simile of the Sun (1) “Bhikkhus, this is the forerunner and precursor of the rising of the sun, that is, the dawn. So too, bhikkhus, for a bhikkhu this is the forerunner and precursor of the arising of the seven factors of enlightenment, that is, good friendship. When a bhikkhu has a good friend, it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate the seven factors of enlightenment.

the dawn. So too , for a bhikkhu this is the forerunner and precursor of the arising of the seven factors of enlightenment , that is, good friendship.



At Sāvatthı̄. “Bhikkhus, just as the river Ganges slants, slopes, and inclines towards the east, so too a bhikkhu who develops and cultivates the Noble Eightfold Path slants, slopes, and inclines towards Nibbāna



“So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is developing and cultivating the Noble Eightfold Path, kings or royal ministers, friends or colleagues, relatives or kinsmen, might invite him to accept wealth, saying: ‘Come, good man, why let these saffron robes weigh you down? Why roam around with a shaven head and a begging bowl? Come, having returned to the lower life, enjoy wealth and do meritorious deeds.’Indeed, bhikkhus, when that bhikkhu is developing and cultivating the Noble Eightfold Path, it is impossible that he will give up the training and return to the lower life. For what reason? Because for a long time his mind has slanted, sloped, and inclined towards seclusion. Thus it is impossible that he will return to the lower life.



Now,
if the nature and purpose of this ascetic life becomes overwhelmingly clear to a householder or a householder’s son, he will become an ascetic of his own free will, following his inner urge. “Sunken I am in birth, in old age and death, in distress, lamentation and pain, in grief and despair; sunken in suffering, lost in suffering!
Oh! that it might be possible to make an end of this whole mass of
misery!” In such a state of mind, filled with confidence, he
renounces the worldly life, and such a renunciation is called in the
texts “right-minded renunciation”



The Buddha’s concern and goodwill towards fellow monk : “I hope you are bearing up, Kassapa, I hope you are getting better. I hope that your painful feelings are subsiding and not increasing, and that their subsiding, not their increase, is to be discerned.” [80]



“Bhikkhus, those bhikkhus who are newly ordained, not long gone forth, recently come to this Dhamma and Discipline, should be exhorted, settled, and established by you in the development of the four establishments of mindfulness. What four? “‘ Come, friends, dwell contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, unified, with limpid mind, concentrated, with one-pointed mind, in order to know the body as it really is. Dwell contemplating feelings in feelings … in order to know feelings as they really are. Dwell contemplating mind in mind … in order to know mind as it really is. Dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena … in order to know phenomena as they really are.’ [145]



6 (6) The Hawk “Bhikkhus, once in the past a hawk suddenly swooped down and seized a quail. 130 Then, while the quail was being carried off by the hawk, he lamented: ‘We were so unlucky, of so little merit! We strayed out of our own resort into the domain of others. If we had stayed in our own resort today, in our own ancestral domain, this hawk wouldn’t have stood a chance against me in a fight.’- ‘But what is your own resort, quail, what is your own ancestral domain?’- ‘The freshly ploughed field covered with clods of soil.’[147] “Then the hawk, confident of her own strength, not boasting of her own strength, 131 released the quail, saying: ‘Go now, quail, but even there you won’t escape me.’“Then, bhikkhus, the quail went to a freshly ploughed field covered with clods of soil.

Having climbed up on a large clod, he stood there and addressed the hawk: ‘Come get me now, hawk! Come get me now, hawk!’“Then the hawk, confident of her own strength, not boasting of her own strength, folded up both her wings and suddenly swooped down on the quail. But when the quail knew, ‘That hawk has come close,’he slipped inside that clod, and the hawk shattered her breast right on the spot. So it is, bhikkhus, when one strays outside one’s own resort into the domain of others.

“Therefore, bhikkhus, do not stray outside your own resort into the domain of others. Māra will gain access to those who stray outside their own resort into the domain of others; Māra will get a hold on them. 132 [148] “And what is not a bhikkhu’s own resort but the domain of others? It is the five cords of sensual pleasure.“Move in your own resort, bhikkhus, in your own ancestral domain. Māra will not gain access to those who move in their own resort, in their own ancestral domain; Māra will not get a hold on them. “And what is a bhikkhu’s resort, his own ancestral domain? It is the four establishments of mindfulness.



Venerable sir, since I heard that the Venerable Sāriputta has attained final Nibbāna, my body seems as if it has been drugged, I have become disoriented, the teachings are no longer clear to me.”159
“Why, Ānanda, when Sāriputta attained final Nibbāna, did he take away your aggregate of virtue, or your aggregate of concentration, or your aggregate of wisdom, or your aggregate of liberation, or your aggregate of the knowledge and vision of liberation?”160 “No, he did not, venerable sir. But for me the Venerable Sāriputta was an advisor and counsellor, one who instructed, exhorted, inspired, and gladdened me. 161 He was unwearying in teaching the Dhamma; he was helpful to his brothers in the holy life. We recollect the nourishment of Dhamma, the wealth of Dhamma, the help of Dhamma given by the Venerable Sāriputta.
“But have I not already declared, Ānanda, that we must be parted, separated, and severed from all who are dear and agreeable to us? [163] How, Ānanda, is it to be obtained here: ‘May what is born, come to be, conditioned, and subject to disintegration not disintegrate!’? That is impossible. It is just as if the largest branch would break off a great tree standing possessed of heartwood: so too, Ānanda, in the great Bhikkhu Saṅgha standing possessed of heartwood, Sāriputta has attained final Nibbāna.
How, Ānanda, is it to be obtained here: ‘May what is born, come to be, conditioned, and subject to disintegration not disintegrate!’? That is impossible.
“Therefore, Ānanda, dwell with yourselves as your own island, with yourselves as your own refuge, with no other refuge; dwell with the Dhamma as your island, with the Dhamma as your refuge, with no other refuge …(as in §9) …Those bhikkhus, Ānanda, either now or after I am gone, who dwell with themselves as their own island, with themselves as their own refuge, with no other refuge; who dwell with the Dhamma as their island, with the Dhamma as their refuge, with no other refuge—it is these bhikkhus, Ānanda, who will be for me topmost of those keen on the training.”



“It is wonderful, bhikkhus, on the part of the disciples, it is amazing on the part of the disciples, that they will act in accordance with the Teacher’s instructions and comply with his admonitions, that they will be dear and agreeable to the four assemblies, that they will be revered and esteemed by them



“Bhikkhus, once in the past an acrobat set up his bamboo pole and addressed his apprentice Medakathālikā thus: 167 ‘Come, dear Medakathālikā, climb the bamboo pole and stand on my shoulders.’Having replied, ‘Yes, teacher,’the apprentice Medakathālikā climbed up the bamboo pole and stood on the teacher’s shoulders. The acrobat then said to the apprentice Medakathālikā: ‘You protect me, dear Medakathālikā, and I’ll protect you. Thus [169] guarded by one another, protected by one another, we’ll display our skills, collect our fee, and get down safely from the bamboo pole.’When this was said, the apprentice Medakathālikā replied: ‘That’s not the way to do it, teacher.

You protect yourself, teacher, and I’ll protect myself. Thus, each self-guarded and self-protected, we’ll display our skills, collect our fee, and get down safely from the bamboo pole.’168 “That’s the method there,”the Blessed One said. “It’s just as the apprentice Medakathālikā said to the teacher. ‘I will protect myself,’bhikkhus: thus should the establishments of mindfulness be practised. ‘I will protect others,’bhikkhus: thus should the establishments of mindfulness be practised.

Protecting oneself, bhikkhus, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself. “And how is it, bhikkhus, that by protecting oneself one protects others? By the pursuit, development, and cultivation [of the four establishments of mindfulness]. It is in such a way that by protecting oneself one protects others. 169 “And how is it, bhikkhus, that by protecting others one protects oneself? By patience, harmlessness, lovingkindness, and sympathy. It is in such a way that by protecting others one protects oneself. 170